https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.thetrace.org/2017/06/physics-deadly-bullets-assault-rifles/amp/ Projectile weapons work by transferring kinetic energy to a target, which ripples out as a shockwave through tissue as the bullet plows through the body, leaving a cavity in its wake. The amount of energy a bullet radiates into a target is determined by a simple formula taught in high school: It’s the product of one half the projectile’s mass times the square of the velocity. The energy delivered to the target increases geometrically along with increases in mass, and exponentially with increases in velocity. The larger a projectile’s surface area, the greater its ability to transfer its energy to the target, instead of simply penetrating straight through. I mean we can get into the exact metric I’m looking for but I know you guys understand my premise here. I’m not a firearms expert. I did not spend years killing people in Iraq. My kids spend one day a term going through mass shooter training though. So I do still get to have an opinion on the nightmare that is American mass shootings.