Wait a second here. Every neanderthal unit costs twice as much as it's homo sapiens sapiens counterpart. And it has only +1 . No other bonuses. During this period of game unit support and supply costs are not a problem usually. Therefore 2x4 units are better than 1x5 unit of same type. 2x4 axeman will beat 1x5 axeman nearly in all circumstances. Among other benefits of neanderthal culture: +1 and +1. Plus neanderthal caves are better than regular cave dwelling. But both cost ENORMOUS amount of . Overall, isn't it counterbalanced enough already? My experience of gameplay tells me that normally it is easy to steamroll barbarians and neanderthal cities with an army of 4 neanderthal obsidian axeman and 2 neanderthal obsidian swordman properly promoted with a Great General (or Commander). But NPC civs are able to punch you back. They normally have much better cities (if walls are present - MUCH harder) and many more defending units. I would certainly like to see the option you've specified in clause 3).