I answered this before, but I guess this got lost in the scuffle: There are quite a few kids here (California) of Vietnamese or Mexican descent who are born in their respective countries but are raised here in America at a young age. They rapidly absorb the dominant/local culture and become just as American as anyone else. In the future, when some of these individuals make great achievements, no one is going to look at them (except maybe extremist nativists) and claim they aren't American. That's the point I'm trying to get across with Koxinga and Go Seigen respectively. Koxinga may have been born in Japan, but he spent more of his childhood and adolescence in Ming, and more importantly, became invested in the fate of the state and the aftermath that followed. The reverse would be the life of Go Seigen (Wu Qingyuan), like I mentioned. And like you said before when speaking of Tang Taizong (in reference to his wife and mother). Blood doesn't matter. It's where the loyalties lie. Unless that was solely in reference to the positive ecumenical attributes of Chinese civilization. Otherwise, we wouldn't be able to consider a number of American (what constitutes for "American" blood is also a whole different can of worms) and French GPs.